Oct 4, 2013

Climate change shrinking age-old glaciers

2 min
There are about 160,000 glaciers in the world, and most of them have been around for thousands of years. But glaciers are currently shrinking at an...

There are about 160,000 glaciers in the world, and most of them have been around for thousands of years. But glaciers are currently shrinking at an alarming rate.

Glacier expert Wendell Tangborn says glaciers are the proverbial “canaries in the coal mine” with regard to climate change, and the news isn't good. Over the past few decades, most glaciers have lost ice mass and many have disappeared completely, sending a clear warning of the consequences of runaway climate change.

In some regions, such as the Himalayas, glaciers act as naturally regulated water reservoirs that during dry years produce more water for human consumption than during wet years. The loss or decline of glaciers in these regions will create severe hardships for the people who live at the higher elevations of these glacierized areas.

But even more important than water supply is the sensitivity of glaciers to show minute changes in precipitation and temperature. In fact, glaciers are more sensitive to climate change than are humans. Glaciers are sending the world warning signals.

“Glaciers and humans have coexisted in many regions of the earth for at least 50,000 years. Extreme or even abnormal weather conditions threaten the existence of both glaciers and humans,” Tangborn says. “As the earth's glaciers melt and disappear, closely monitoring them may provide us with insights we need to respond to future climate changes.”

Tangborn's PTAA Glacier Mass Balance Project has gathered data showing the devastation firsthand. Specifically, the project was developed to monitor the daily mass balance of up to 200 glaciers worldwide using only routine weather observations collected at low-altitude stations. 

The PTAAGMB project measures 40 glaciers from 13 countries. Detailed mass balance reports for nine of those glaciers are available at www.ptaagmb.com.

It is noteworthy that the cumulative mass balance of glaciers in the study does not reveal a plateau of global warming recently shown by temperature records for the 1998-2012 period. Since at least 1951, the annual mass balance of nearly all these glaciers has been predominantly negative, with no indication of leveling off since 1998.

The journal Cryosphere recently published an article about the application of the PTAA model to Bering Glacier. The article, titled "Mass balance, runoff and surges of Bering Glacier, Alaska", can be found at www.the-cryosphere.net/7/867/2013/tc-7-867-2013.pdf

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Jul 29, 2021

Carbon dioxide removal revenues worth £2bn a year by 2030

Dominic Ellis
4 min
Engineered greenhouse gas removals will become "a major new infrastructure sector" in the coming decades says the UK's National Infrastructure Commission

Carbon dioxide removal revenues could reach £2bn a year by 2030 in the UK with costs per megatonne totalling up to £400 million, according to the National Infrastructure Commission

Engineered greenhouse gas removals will become "a major new infrastructure sector" in the coming decades - although costs are uncertain given removal technologies are in their infancy - and revenues could match that of the UK’s water sector by 2050. The Commission’s analysis suggests engineered removals technologies need to have capacity to remove five to ten megatonnes of carbon dioxide no later than 2030, and between 40 and 100 megatonnes by 2050.

The Commission states technologies fit into two categories: extracting carbon dioxide directly out of the air; and bioenergy with carbon capture technology – processing biomass to recapture carbon dioxide absorbed as the fuel grew. In both cases, the captured CO2 is then stored permanently out of the atmosphere, typically under the seabed.

The report sets out how the engineered removal and storage of carbon dioxide offers the most realistic way to mitigate the final slice of emissions expected to remain by the 2040s from sources that don’t currently have a decarbonisation solution, like aviation and agriculture. 

It stresses that the potential of these technologies is “not an excuse to delay necessary action elsewhere” and cannot replace efforts to reduce emissions from sectors like road transport or power, where removals would be a more expensive alternative.  

The critical role these technologies will play in meeting climate targets means government must rapidly kick start the sector so that it becomes viable by the 2030s, according to the report, which was commissioned by government in November 2020. 

Early movement by the UK to develop the expertise and capacity in greenhouse gas removal technologies could create a comparative advantage, with the prospect of other countries needing to procure the knowledge and skills the UK develops.

The Commission recommends that government should support the development of this new sector in the short term with policies that drive delivery of these technologies and create demand through obligations on polluting industries, which will over time enable a competitive market to develop. Robust independent regulation must also be put in place from the start to help build public and investor confidence.

While the burden of these costs could be shared by different parts of industries required to pay for removals or in part shared with government, the report acknowledges that, over the longer term, the aim should be to have polluting sectors pay for removals they need to reach carbon targets.

Polluting industries are likely to pass a proportion of the costs onto consumers. While those with bigger household expenditures will pay more than those on lower incomes, the report underlines that government will need to identify ways of protecting vulnerable consumers and to decide where in relevant industry supply chains the costs should fall.

Chair of the National Infrastructure Commission, Sir John Armitt, said taking steps to clean our air is something we’re going to have to get used to, just as we already manage our wastewater and household refuse. 

"While engineered removals will not be everyone’s favourite device in the toolkit, they are there for the hardest jobs. And in the overall project of mitigating our impact on the planet for the sake of generations to come, we need every tool we can find," he said.

“But to get close to having the sector operating where and when we need it to, the government needs to get ahead of the game now. The adaptive approach to market building we recommend will create the best environment for emerging technologies to develop quickly and show their worth, avoiding the need for government to pick winners. We know from the dramatic fall in the cost of renewables that this approach works and we must apply the lessons learned to this novel, but necessary, technology.” 

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and International Energy Agency estimate a global capacity for engineered removals of 2,000 to 16,000 megatonnes of carbon dioxide each year by 2050 will be needed in order to meet global reduction targets. 

Yesterday Summit Carbon Solutions received "a strategic investment" from John Deere to advance a major CCUS project (click here). The project will accelerate decarbonisation efforts across the agriculture industry by enabling the production of low carbon ethanol, resulting in the production of more sustainable food, feed, and fuel. Summit Carbon Solutions has partnered with 31 biorefineries across the Midwest United States to capture and permanently sequester their CO2 emissions.  

Cory Reed, President, Agriculture & Turf Division of John Deere, said: "Carbon neutral ethanol would have a positive impact on the environment and bolster the long-term sustainability of the agriculture industry. The work Summit Carbon Solutions is doing will be critical in delivering on these goals."

McKinsey highlights a number of CCUS methods which can drive CO2 to net zero:

  • Today’s leader: Enhanced oil recovery Among CO2 uses by industry, enhanced oil recovery leads the field. It accounts for around 90 percent of all CO2 usage today
  • Cementing in CO2 for the ages New processes could lock up CO2 permanently in concrete, “storing” CO2 in buildings, sidewalks, or anywhere else concrete is used
  • Carbon neutral fuel for jets Technically, CO2 could be used to create virtually any type of fuel. Through a chemical reaction, CO2 captured from industry can be combined with hydrogen to create synthetic gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel
  • Capturing CO2 from ambient air - anywhere Direct air capture (DAC) could push CO2 emissions into negative territory in a big way
  • The biomass-energy cycle: CO2 neutral or even negative Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage relies on nature to remove CO2 from the atmosphere for use elsewhere

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