Enel invests $190 million in 90 MW Brazil windfarm
Enel, through its subsidiary Enel Green Power Brasil Participações (EGPB), has started construction of Cristalândia wind farm, located in the municipalities of Brumado, Rio de Contas and Dom Basilio in Brazil’s north-eastern state of Bahia.
The new facility will have a total installed capacity of 90 MW and is expected to enter into service in the second half of 2017. Once completed, Cristalândia will be able to generate more than 350 GWh per year, enough to meet the annual consumption needs of more than 170,000 Brazilian households while avoiding the emission of about 118,000 tonnes of CO2 into the atmosphere.
Enel will be investing approximately $190 million in the construction of Cristalândia. The plant was awarded to EGPB through the LFA (Leilão de Fontes Alternativas) public renewable energy auction in April 2015. The project is supported by 20-year power purchase agreements with a pool of Brazilian electricity distribution companies.
Cristalândia is the Enel Group’s sixth wind farm in Bahia, a state where the Group’s Brazilian renewable company EGPB already operates 264 MW of wind power capacity and is currently building the 180 MW Delfina wind project, the 254 MW Ituverava solar pv facility, which is the largest Enel solar plant currently under construction, and the 158 MW Lapa solar park. The company has been awarded a further 172 MW of wind capacity and 103 MW of PV capacity in Bahia through public tenders.
The Enel Group’s Brazilian renewable subsidiary currently has a total installed capacity of 546 MW, of which 401 MW comes from wind, 12 MW from PV solar and 133 MW from hydro. Moreover, the company has 442 MW of wind, 102 MW of hydro and 807 MW of solar projects currently in execution.
Trafigura and Yara International explore clean ammonia usage
Reducing shipping emissions is a vital component of the fight against global climate change, yet Greenhouse Gas emissions from the global maritime sector are increasing - and at odds with the IMO's strategy to cut absolute emissions by at least 50% by 2050.
How more than 70,000 ships can decrease their reliance on carbon-based sources is one of transport's most pressing decarbonisation challenges.
Yara and Trafigura intend to collaborate on initiatives that will establish themselves in the clean ammonia value chain. Under the MoU announced today, Trafigura and Yara intend to work together in the following areas:
- The supply of clean ammonia by Yara to Trafigura Group companies
- Exploration of joint R&D initiatives for clean ammonia application as a marine fuel
- Development of new clean ammonia assets including marine fuel infrastructure and market opportunities
Magnus Krogh Ankarstrand, President of Yara Clean Ammonia, said the agreement is a good example of cross-industry collaboration to develop and promote zero-emission fuel in the form of clean ammonia for the shipping industry. "Building clean ammonia value chains is critical to facilitate the transition to zero emission fuels by enabling the hydrogen economy – not least within trade and distribution where both Yara and Trafigura have leading capabilities. Demand and supply of clean ammonia need to be developed in tandem," he said.
There is a growing consensus that hydrogen-based fuels will ultimately be the shipping fuels of the future, but clear and comprehensive regulation is essential, according to Jose Maria Larocca, Executive Director and Co-Head of Oil Trading for Trafigura.
Ammonia has a number of properties that require "further investigation," according to Wartsila. "It ignites and burns poorly compared to other fuels and is toxic and corrosive, making safe handling and storage important. Burning ammonia could also lead to higher NOx emissions unless controlled either by aftertreatment or by optimising the combustion process," it notes.
Trafigura has co-sponsored the R&D of MAN Energy Solutions’ ammonia-fuelled engine for maritime vessels, has performed in-depth studies of transport fuels with reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and has published a white paper on the need for a global carbon levy for shipping fuels to be introduced by International Maritime Organization.
Oslo-based Yara produces roughly 8.5 million tonnes of ammonia annually and employs a fleet of 11 ammonia carriers, including 5 fully owned ships, and owns 18 marine ammonia terminals with 580 kt of storage capacity – enabling it to produce and deliver ammonia across the globe.
It recently established a new clean ammonia unit to capture growth opportunities in emission-free fuel for shipping and power, carbon-free fertilizer and ammonia for industrial applications.