How to Effectively Modernize Rural India Using Solar Power
While China holds the top spot for most populated country with 1.3 billion people, India is a close second with 1.2. While the country is still rapidly industrializing, much of it remains rural and lacks even basic infrastructure. Times are rapidly changing, though, as solar power stands to revolutionize the country and bring even the most remote areas of India into the twenty-first century. The question still stands, however, as to what must continue to happen for the solar revolution to really take hold in India. Here's how to keep rural India on the road its already traveling.
Keep Solar Affordable
Writing for ThinkProgress.org, Andrew Satter claims to have glimpsed the future of energy for the rural poor in India and said the most important factor is affordability. With rural India in extreme poverty, costs need to stay low for solar installations to remain viable. The United Nations Environmental Program is hoping to make this happen by encouraging local and national banks to finance small loans. The loans, which usually range from around $300 to $500, cover everything needed to get a solar PV module up and running for a single household.
Disrupt the Status Quo
Much of India’s rural poor rely on dated energy sources such as kerosene lamps and household stoves to light and heat their homes. Not only does this cause increased levels of pollution, but it’s also highly ineffective as sources are limited. Despite India’s building of large, heavy-polluting centralized power plants, nearly 400 million of its citizens are still without power. According to Satter, India simply can’t continue on a path of heavily reliance on these outdated energy sources. He cites the International Energy Agency’s prediction that maintain the status quo in an attempt to solve India’s energy woes would leave nearly a billion people without power by 2030.
Remain Hopeful Regarding the Modi Government’s Commitment to Solar
With the swearing in of new Prime Minister Narendra Modi in late May of this year, the government reaffirmed its serious commitment to solar energy. Modi’s goal is to have every household run at least one light bulb by 2019. It’s an ambitious goal, though it looks to be entirely achievable. The government is aggressively pursuing the National Solar Mission, which would, by 2022, install 20,000MW of grid-connected solar power capacity and 2,000MW of distributed solar power capacity. If these goals are met, the country would be well on its way to renewable energy for all.
Foster Growth, but Manage Expectations
India absolutely needs to get rural communities powered up with renewable energy, and it’s clear that’s beginning to happen. Satter points to two companies, Simpa Energy and OMC Power, that have already made incredible strides in providing renewable solar to rural India, and both project a substantial amount of growth by the end of the year. To truly be successful, though, those attempting to modernize rural India through solar need to have a certain level of pragmatism. Getting loans from banks for projects that focus exclusively on the poor can be difficult, according to Satter, and world energy demand is set to increase by a third by 2035 making supplying it all the more crucial and urgent. While these challenges can seem daunting, India is still well on its way to making solar energy for all in its rural areas a reality.
Carbon dioxide removal revenues worth £2bn a year by 2030
Carbon dioxide removal revenues could reach £2bn a year by 2030 in the UK with costs per megatonne totalling up to £400 million, according to the National Infrastructure Commission.
Engineered greenhouse gas removals will become "a major new infrastructure sector" in the coming decades - although costs are uncertain given removal technologies are in their infancy - and revenues could match that of the UK’s water sector by 2050. The Commission’s analysis suggests engineered removals technologies need to have capacity to remove five to ten megatonnes of carbon dioxide no later than 2030, and between 40 and 100 megatonnes by 2050.
The Commission states technologies fit into two categories: extracting carbon dioxide directly out of the air; and bioenergy with carbon capture technology – processing biomass to recapture carbon dioxide absorbed as the fuel grew. In both cases, the captured CO2 is then stored permanently out of the atmosphere, typically under the seabed.
The report sets out how the engineered removal and storage of carbon dioxide offers the most realistic way to mitigate the final slice of emissions expected to remain by the 2040s from sources that don’t currently have a decarbonisation solution, like aviation and agriculture.
It stresses that the potential of these technologies is “not an excuse to delay necessary action elsewhere” and cannot replace efforts to reduce emissions from sectors like road transport or power, where removals would be a more expensive alternative.
The critical role these technologies will play in meeting climate targets means government must rapidly kick start the sector so that it becomes viable by the 2030s, according to the report, which was commissioned by government in November 2020.
Early movement by the UK to develop the expertise and capacity in greenhouse gas removal technologies could create a comparative advantage, with the prospect of other countries needing to procure the knowledge and skills the UK develops.
The Commission recommends that government should support the development of this new sector in the short term with policies that drive delivery of these technologies and create demand through obligations on polluting industries, which will over time enable a competitive market to develop. Robust independent regulation must also be put in place from the start to help build public and investor confidence.
While the burden of these costs could be shared by different parts of industries required to pay for removals or in part shared with government, the report acknowledges that, over the longer term, the aim should be to have polluting sectors pay for removals they need to reach carbon targets.
Polluting industries are likely to pass a proportion of the costs onto consumers. While those with bigger household expenditures will pay more than those on lower incomes, the report underlines that government will need to identify ways of protecting vulnerable consumers and to decide where in relevant industry supply chains the costs should fall.
Chair of the National Infrastructure Commission, Sir John Armitt, said taking steps to clean our air is something we’re going to have to get used to, just as we already manage our wastewater and household refuse.
"While engineered removals will not be everyone’s favourite device in the toolkit, they are there for the hardest jobs. And in the overall project of mitigating our impact on the planet for the sake of generations to come, we need every tool we can find," he said.
“But to get close to having the sector operating where and when we need it to, the government needs to get ahead of the game now. The adaptive approach to market building we recommend will create the best environment for emerging technologies to develop quickly and show their worth, avoiding the need for government to pick winners. We know from the dramatic fall in the cost of renewables that this approach works and we must apply the lessons learned to this novel, but necessary, technology.”
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and International Energy Agency estimate a global capacity for engineered removals of 2,000 to 16,000 megatonnes of carbon dioxide each year by 2050 will be needed in order to meet global reduction targets.
Yesterday Summit Carbon Solutions received "a strategic investment" from John Deere to advance a major CCUS project (click here). The project will accelerate decarbonisation efforts across the agriculture industry by enabling the production of low carbon ethanol, resulting in the production of more sustainable food, feed, and fuel. Summit Carbon Solutions has partnered with 31 biorefineries across the Midwest United States to capture and permanently sequester their CO2 emissions.
Cory Reed, President, Agriculture & Turf Division of John Deere, said: "Carbon neutral ethanol would have a positive impact on the environment and bolster the long-term sustainability of the agriculture industry. The work Summit Carbon Solutions is doing will be critical in delivering on these goals."
McKinsey highlights a number of CCUS methods which can drive CO2 to net zero:
- Today’s leader: Enhanced oil recovery Among CO2 uses by industry, enhanced oil recovery leads the field. It accounts for around 90 percent of all CO2 usage today
- Cementing in CO2 for the ages New processes could lock up CO2 permanently in concrete, “storing” CO2 in buildings, sidewalks, or anywhere else concrete is used
- Carbon neutral fuel for jets Technically, CO2 could be used to create virtually any type of fuel. Through a chemical reaction, CO2 captured from industry can be combined with hydrogen to create synthetic gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel
- Capturing CO2 from ambient air - anywhere Direct air capture (DAC) could push CO2 emissions into negative territory in a big way
- The biomass-energy cycle: CO2 neutral or even negative Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage relies on nature to remove CO2 from the atmosphere for use elsewhere