Recycling not catching on in some U.S. towns
By John McMalcolm
The United States is one of the countries with the highest recycling rates, with most of its cities recycling about one third of their waste.
However, there are still a number of cities that are seriously lagging behind in their recycling efforts. These cities are experiencing significant waste problems because they have failed to provide the necessary facilities, incentives or education to encourage their residents to adopt the recycling habit.
Here is a list of U.S. cities that are struggling with recycling.
Oklahoma City is only recycling about three percent of its waste, making it the worst recycling city in the country. One of the main reasons why its residents are not actively recycling is because it charges a monthly fee for curbside pickup.
In an endeavor to solve its recycling problems, the city has recently provided residents in a suburban area with larger recycling bins for curbside pickup and installed four self-compacting recycling stations in the downtown area. It has realized that making recycling more convenient for its residents is an important step towards improving its recycling situation.
With a recycling rate of only 3.7 percent, the capital city of Indiana certainly needs to step up its recycling efforts.
It tried to encourage its residents to recycle by organizing the Recycle-Fest Music Festival this year. However, it may have more success if it starts expanding its curbside pickup service, which is currently available to only 12 percent of its residents.
Philadelphia is making substantial efforts to promote recycling, but its recycling rate is still a dismal 8.7 percent.
It has expanded its recycling rewards program after achieving a 90-percent success rate in one neighborhood. With an effective curbside pickup system already in place, the city is now asking its residents to practice recycling when they are not at home.
Houston is facing waste management problems because it is unable to provide adequate curbside recycling service. Many of its residents are still on the waiting list for the recycling bins required to avail of the service. With its inefficient recycling program, it is only recycling 9.4 percent of its waste.
Nonetheless, the largest city in Texas is trying to develop an innovative recycling facility that is able to separate usable materials from waste. It has also recently expanded its curbside recycling service to 35,000 more households.
New York City
The nation's most populous city is having a gigantic garbage problem, because it is only able to recycle 15 percent of its residential waste. The problem arises from the lack of recycling facilities, incentives to recycle and curbside or domestic composting services.
In an attempt to boost its recycling rate, the city has launched the "Recycle Everything" campaign to encourage its residents to practice recycling.
City authorities and residents need to cooperate in order to achieve recycling success. By taking the right measures, cities will be able to improve their recycling rates significantly in the near future, saving on energy costs over time.
About the Author: John McMalcolm is a freelance writer who writes on a wide range of subjects, from recycling to website issues such as Reputation.com reviews.
Carbon dioxide removal revenues worth £2bn a year by 2030
Carbon dioxide removal revenues could reach £2bn a year by 2030 in the UK with costs per megatonne totalling up to £400 million, according to the National Infrastructure Commission.
Engineered greenhouse gas removals will become "a major new infrastructure sector" in the coming decades - although costs are uncertain given removal technologies are in their infancy - and revenues could match that of the UK’s water sector by 2050. The Commission’s analysis suggests engineered removals technologies need to have capacity to remove five to ten megatonnes of carbon dioxide no later than 2030, and between 40 and 100 megatonnes by 2050.
The Commission states technologies fit into two categories: extracting carbon dioxide directly out of the air; and bioenergy with carbon capture technology – processing biomass to recapture carbon dioxide absorbed as the fuel grew. In both cases, the captured CO2 is then stored permanently out of the atmosphere, typically under the seabed.
The report sets out how the engineered removal and storage of carbon dioxide offers the most realistic way to mitigate the final slice of emissions expected to remain by the 2040s from sources that don’t currently have a decarbonisation solution, like aviation and agriculture.
It stresses that the potential of these technologies is “not an excuse to delay necessary action elsewhere” and cannot replace efforts to reduce emissions from sectors like road transport or power, where removals would be a more expensive alternative.
The critical role these technologies will play in meeting climate targets means government must rapidly kick start the sector so that it becomes viable by the 2030s, according to the report, which was commissioned by government in November 2020.
Early movement by the UK to develop the expertise and capacity in greenhouse gas removal technologies could create a comparative advantage, with the prospect of other countries needing to procure the knowledge and skills the UK develops.
The Commission recommends that government should support the development of this new sector in the short term with policies that drive delivery of these technologies and create demand through obligations on polluting industries, which will over time enable a competitive market to develop. Robust independent regulation must also be put in place from the start to help build public and investor confidence.
While the burden of these costs could be shared by different parts of industries required to pay for removals or in part shared with government, the report acknowledges that, over the longer term, the aim should be to have polluting sectors pay for removals they need to reach carbon targets.
Polluting industries are likely to pass a proportion of the costs onto consumers. While those with bigger household expenditures will pay more than those on lower incomes, the report underlines that government will need to identify ways of protecting vulnerable consumers and to decide where in relevant industry supply chains the costs should fall.
Chair of the National Infrastructure Commission, Sir John Armitt, said taking steps to clean our air is something we’re going to have to get used to, just as we already manage our wastewater and household refuse.
"While engineered removals will not be everyone’s favourite device in the toolkit, they are there for the hardest jobs. And in the overall project of mitigating our impact on the planet for the sake of generations to come, we need every tool we can find," he said.
“But to get close to having the sector operating where and when we need it to, the government needs to get ahead of the game now. The adaptive approach to market building we recommend will create the best environment for emerging technologies to develop quickly and show their worth, avoiding the need for government to pick winners. We know from the dramatic fall in the cost of renewables that this approach works and we must apply the lessons learned to this novel, but necessary, technology.”
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and International Energy Agency estimate a global capacity for engineered removals of 2,000 to 16,000 megatonnes of carbon dioxide each year by 2050 will be needed in order to meet global reduction targets.
Yesterday Summit Carbon Solutions received "a strategic investment" from John Deere to advance a major CCUS project (click here). The project will accelerate decarbonisation efforts across the agriculture industry by enabling the production of low carbon ethanol, resulting in the production of more sustainable food, feed, and fuel. Summit Carbon Solutions has partnered with 31 biorefineries across the Midwest United States to capture and permanently sequester their CO2 emissions.
Cory Reed, President, Agriculture & Turf Division of John Deere, said: "Carbon neutral ethanol would have a positive impact on the environment and bolster the long-term sustainability of the agriculture industry. The work Summit Carbon Solutions is doing will be critical in delivering on these goals."
McKinsey highlights a number of CCUS methods which can drive CO2 to net zero:
- Today’s leader: Enhanced oil recovery Among CO2 uses by industry, enhanced oil recovery leads the field. It accounts for around 90 percent of all CO2 usage today
- Cementing in CO2 for the ages New processes could lock up CO2 permanently in concrete, “storing” CO2 in buildings, sidewalks, or anywhere else concrete is used
- Carbon neutral fuel for jets Technically, CO2 could be used to create virtually any type of fuel. Through a chemical reaction, CO2 captured from industry can be combined with hydrogen to create synthetic gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel
- Capturing CO2 from ambient air - anywhere Direct air capture (DAC) could push CO2 emissions into negative territory in a big way
- The biomass-energy cycle: CO2 neutral or even negative Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage relies on nature to remove CO2 from the atmosphere for use elsewhere