The renewable energy production of each US state: Part 1
This article is part one of five in a series where we will be looking into the renewable energy production of each of the states in the U.S. We take a look at the percentage of green energy produced by each state and give some interesting facts and figures about the renewable energy that is produced there.
Total renewable energy produced (percent): 16.15
Renewable sources provide 16.15 percent of Alabama's energy production, totalling 263,727 billion BTUs. This is 3.5 percent of total U.S. renewable energy production.
In 2015, Alabama ranked eighth in net electricity generation from renewable energy resources, including hydroelectric power. In 2015, conventional hydroelectric power supplied 75 percent of Alabama's generation from renewable resources.
Alabama has the third-biggest timberland acreage amongst the lower 48 states. In 2015, Alabama ranked fifth (in the United States) in electricity generation from biomass. Most of it was from wood and wood waste from the state’s substantial forest products industry.
Total renewable energy produced (percent): 0.77
Renewable sources provide 0.77 percent of Alaska's energy production, totalling 14,316 billion BTUs. This is 0.19 percent of total U.S. renewable energy
In 2015, Wind power provided nearly three quarters of Alaska's electricity from non-hydroelectric renewable sources.
Alaska was one of only eight states generating electricity from geothermal energy in 2015.
Total renewable energy produced (percent): 15.51
Renewable sources provide 15.51 percent of Arizona's energy production, which totals 88,571 billion BTUs. This is 1.18 percent of the total United States renewable energy production.
In 2014, the state placed second in the United States in utility-scale electricity generation from solar.
Arizona is the 15th most populous state in the U.S. It ranked 44th in per capita energy consumption in 2013, partly because of the state’s small industrial sector.
Arizona's Renewable Environmental Standard needs 15 percent of the state’s electricity consumed in 2025 to come from renewable energy resources.
12.01 percent of the energy that Arkansas produces is renewable.
Renewable sources provide 12.01 percent of Arkansas's energy production, this totals over 120,541 billion BTUs. This equals 1.6 percent of the total United States renewable energy production.
In 2014, Arkansas’s natural gas production accounted for 4.1 percent of the total United States marketed production.
Coal-fired electric power plants in Arkansas provided over half (54 percent) of the state's electricity in 2014.
Total renewable energy produced (percent): 24.38
Renewable energy production provides over 24 percent of California's total energy production. This totals 635,062 billion BTUs. This is 8.43 percent of total United States renewable energy production.
Total renewable energy produced (percent): 3.11
Renewable sources provide 3.11 percent of Colorado's energy production, totalling 77,156 billion BTUs. This is 1.02 percent of total U.S. renewable energy production.
60 percent of the electricity that was generated in Colorado in 2014 came from coal, 22 percent came from natural gas and 18 percent came from renewable energy resources.
Total renewable energy produced (percent): 13.02
Renewable sources provide 13.02 percent of Connecticut's energy production, totalling 26,087 billion BTUs. This is 0.35 percent of total U.S. renewable energy production.
In 2014, over one third of households in Connecticut used natural gas to heat their homes.
By 2020, Connecticut wants to obtain 23 percent of the state's electricity from renewable energy. As well as another 4 percent from conservation and energy from industrial heat.
100 percent of the energy that Delaware produces is renewable. This is mostly down to its Biomass production as this industry creates over 80 percent of the state's total renewable energy production.
Total renewable energy produced (percent): 40.99
Renewable sources provide over 40 percent of Florida's total energy production. This equates to over 214,555 billion BTUs which is 2.85 percent of the total United States renewable energy production.
Electricity is 90 percent of the energy consumed by Florida households. Florida households (on average) spend $1,900 per year on their electricity bills; this is 40 percent higher than the U.S. average, according to EIA's Residential Energy Consumption Survey.
Total renewable energy produced (percent): 36.36
Renewable sources provide over 36 percent of Georgia's energy production. This totals 189,321 billion BTUs, which is 2.51 percent of total U.S. renewable energy production.
Georgia is a largely forested state and has been a leading state in the production of wood products. In 2015, Georgia placed 3rd in the United States in net electricity generation from biomass.
Carbon dioxide removal revenues worth £2bn a year by 2030
Carbon dioxide removal revenues could reach £2bn a year by 2030 in the UK with costs per megatonne totalling up to £400 million, according to the National Infrastructure Commission.
Engineered greenhouse gas removals will become "a major new infrastructure sector" in the coming decades - although costs are uncertain given removal technologies are in their infancy - and revenues could match that of the UK’s water sector by 2050. The Commission’s analysis suggests engineered removals technologies need to have capacity to remove five to ten megatonnes of carbon dioxide no later than 2030, and between 40 and 100 megatonnes by 2050.
The Commission states technologies fit into two categories: extracting carbon dioxide directly out of the air; and bioenergy with carbon capture technology – processing biomass to recapture carbon dioxide absorbed as the fuel grew. In both cases, the captured CO2 is then stored permanently out of the atmosphere, typically under the seabed.
The report sets out how the engineered removal and storage of carbon dioxide offers the most realistic way to mitigate the final slice of emissions expected to remain by the 2040s from sources that don’t currently have a decarbonisation solution, like aviation and agriculture.
It stresses that the potential of these technologies is “not an excuse to delay necessary action elsewhere” and cannot replace efforts to reduce emissions from sectors like road transport or power, where removals would be a more expensive alternative.
The critical role these technologies will play in meeting climate targets means government must rapidly kick start the sector so that it becomes viable by the 2030s, according to the report, which was commissioned by government in November 2020.
Early movement by the UK to develop the expertise and capacity in greenhouse gas removal technologies could create a comparative advantage, with the prospect of other countries needing to procure the knowledge and skills the UK develops.
The Commission recommends that government should support the development of this new sector in the short term with policies that drive delivery of these technologies and create demand through obligations on polluting industries, which will over time enable a competitive market to develop. Robust independent regulation must also be put in place from the start to help build public and investor confidence.
While the burden of these costs could be shared by different parts of industries required to pay for removals or in part shared with government, the report acknowledges that, over the longer term, the aim should be to have polluting sectors pay for removals they need to reach carbon targets.
Polluting industries are likely to pass a proportion of the costs onto consumers. While those with bigger household expenditures will pay more than those on lower incomes, the report underlines that government will need to identify ways of protecting vulnerable consumers and to decide where in relevant industry supply chains the costs should fall.
Chair of the National Infrastructure Commission, Sir John Armitt, said taking steps to clean our air is something we’re going to have to get used to, just as we already manage our wastewater and household refuse.
"While engineered removals will not be everyone’s favourite device in the toolkit, they are there for the hardest jobs. And in the overall project of mitigating our impact on the planet for the sake of generations to come, we need every tool we can find," he said.
“But to get close to having the sector operating where and when we need it to, the government needs to get ahead of the game now. The adaptive approach to market building we recommend will create the best environment for emerging technologies to develop quickly and show their worth, avoiding the need for government to pick winners. We know from the dramatic fall in the cost of renewables that this approach works and we must apply the lessons learned to this novel, but necessary, technology.”
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and International Energy Agency estimate a global capacity for engineered removals of 2,000 to 16,000 megatonnes of carbon dioxide each year by 2050 will be needed in order to meet global reduction targets.
Yesterday Summit Carbon Solutions received "a strategic investment" from John Deere to advance a major CCUS project (click here). The project will accelerate decarbonisation efforts across the agriculture industry by enabling the production of low carbon ethanol, resulting in the production of more sustainable food, feed, and fuel. Summit Carbon Solutions has partnered with 31 biorefineries across the Midwest United States to capture and permanently sequester their CO2 emissions.
Cory Reed, President, Agriculture & Turf Division of John Deere, said: "Carbon neutral ethanol would have a positive impact on the environment and bolster the long-term sustainability of the agriculture industry. The work Summit Carbon Solutions is doing will be critical in delivering on these goals."
McKinsey highlights a number of CCUS methods which can drive CO2 to net zero:
- Today’s leader: Enhanced oil recovery Among CO2 uses by industry, enhanced oil recovery leads the field. It accounts for around 90 percent of all CO2 usage today
- Cementing in CO2 for the ages New processes could lock up CO2 permanently in concrete, “storing” CO2 in buildings, sidewalks, or anywhere else concrete is used
- Carbon neutral fuel for jets Technically, CO2 could be used to create virtually any type of fuel. Through a chemical reaction, CO2 captured from industry can be combined with hydrogen to create synthetic gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel
- Capturing CO2 from ambient air - anywhere Direct air capture (DAC) could push CO2 emissions into negative territory in a big way
- The biomass-energy cycle: CO2 neutral or even negative Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage relies on nature to remove CO2 from the atmosphere for use elsewhere