The renewable energy production of each US state: Part 3
This article is part three of five in a series where we’ll be looking at the renewable energy that is produced by each state in the U.S. We take a look at the percentage of green energy that has been generated by each state and provide some interesting data about the renewable energy that is produced there.
Massachusetts energy generation is made up of 42.72 percent renewable energy. This totals 42,103 billion BTUs which is 0.56 percent of total United States renewable energy production.
More than 27 percent of residents in Massachusetts use fuel oil to heat their homes. This is over five times higher than the national average which is only 5.3 percent.
In 2015, the state generated 64 percent of its electricity from natural gas and 7 percent from coal.
Total renewable energy produced (percent): 24.97
Renewable sources provide 24.97 percent of Michigan's energy production, totalling 140,769 billion BTUs. This is 1.87 percent of total United States renewable energy production.
Michigan had more underground natural gas storage than any other state in the United States in 2014. The state could hold almost 1.1 trillion cubic feet.
One of the United States top 100 natural gas fields is located in Michigan (The Antrim Gas Field). This gas field produced over 95 billion cubic feet of natural gas in 2014.
Households in Michigan use a lot more of their energy through space heating which is due to the cooler weather in Michigan. Space heating takes up 55 percent of energy use compared to the United States average which is much lower at 41 percent.
Renewable sources provide 66.47 percent of Minnesota's energy production, totalling 256,963 billion BTUs. This is 3.41 percent of the total United States renewable energy production.
In 2015, Minnesota ranked seventh in the United States for its wind generation. The state generated 9.8 million megawatt hours from wind in that year.
The largest oil refinery in Minnesota (The Pine Bend Refinery) is the biggest oil refinery situated in a non-oil-producing state.
11.7 percent of the energy that Mississippi produces is renewable. This totals 53,335 billion BTUs which is 0.71 percent of the total United States renewable energy production.
In 2015, Mississippi generated just over 2 percent of its electricity from renewable energy sources, with wood and wood waste accounting for virtually all of the state's renewable electricity generation.
The 1,443 megawatt Grand Gulf Nuclear Station near Port Gibson alongside the Mississippi River generated 18 percent of the state’s electricity in 2015. It is the biggest single-unit nuclear power plant in the whole of the United States.
Renewable energy sources provide over 42 percent of Missouri's energy production. This totals 86,090 billion BTUs which is 1.14 percent of the total United States renewable energy production.
Renewable energy resources accounted for 3.7 percent of Missouri's net electricity generation in 2015.
The state of Missouri has one nuclear power plant named Callaway Nuclear Generating Station. This nuclear power plant generated 12.5 percent of the state's electricity generation in 2015.
There is a 1,679-mile-long natural gas pipeline in Missouri named The Rockies Express Pipeline. This pipeline stretches from Colorado to Ohio. The Rockies Express Pipeline West portion of the system passes near Kansas City, Missouri, before terminating in northeast Missouri where it interconnects with the REX East pipeline.
The total renewable energy generated by Montana totals 117,302 billion BTUs which is 1.56 percent of the total United States renewable energy production.
In 2014, wind energy generation in the state raised by 12 percent and provided 6.5 percent of Montana’s net electricity generation.
Competitive electricity suppliers and public utilities in Montana must obtain at least 15 percent of their electricity sales from renewable sources. This is called the Renewable Energy Resource Standard. It requires that electricity suppliers must buy a set amount of power from small community-based renewable energy projects.
Renewable sources provide 61.08 percent of Nebraska's total energy production. This equates to 179,916 billion BTUs which is 2.39 percent of the total United States renewable energy production.
More than 90 percent of Nebraska has suitable conditions for commercial-scale wind power generation according to The National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Nebraska has a very energy-intense industrial sector. This is led by chemical manufacturing and food processing and it ranks the state among the top ten in the U.S. based on energy consumption.
Even though almost 90 percent of the energy that Nevada uses comes from outside of the state, over 94 percent of the energy that the state produces is renewable. This totals 47,288 billion BTUs which is 0.63 percent of the total United States renewable energy production.
2014 saw that 63 percent of the state’s electricity came from natural gas production.
Also in 2014, Nevada was ranked number two in the United States for its utility-scale net electricity generation from geothermal energy. It also ranked third in utility-scale net generation from its solar energy production. Over 11 percent of the state’s electricity production in 2014 came from those two sources.
29. New Hampshire
Renewable energy sources provide 30.24 percent of New Hampshire's energy production. This totals over 39,969 billion BTUs which is 0.53 percent of the total United States renewable energy generation.
New Hampshire's renewable portfolio standard necessitates that 24.8 percent of electricity sold in the state must come from renewable energy sources by 2025. In 2015, out of the state’s net energy production, 17 percent came from renewable energy.
30. New Jersey
New Jersey’s renewable energy sources provide 5.89 percent of its total energy production. This equates to more than 22,487 billion BTUs which is 0.3 percent of the total United States renewable energy production.
As of 2015, New Jersey has (on average) the tenth highest electricity prices in the whole of the Unites States.
For the first time, ever in 2015, natural gas production generated more electricity in the state of New Jersey than nuclear power did. Also in 2015, solar power became the state’s largest source of renewable electricity.
Carbon dioxide removal revenues worth £2bn a year by 2030
Carbon dioxide removal revenues could reach £2bn a year by 2030 in the UK with costs per megatonne totalling up to £400 million, according to the National Infrastructure Commission.
Engineered greenhouse gas removals will become "a major new infrastructure sector" in the coming decades - although costs are uncertain given removal technologies are in their infancy - and revenues could match that of the UK’s water sector by 2050. The Commission’s analysis suggests engineered removals technologies need to have capacity to remove five to ten megatonnes of carbon dioxide no later than 2030, and between 40 and 100 megatonnes by 2050.
The Commission states technologies fit into two categories: extracting carbon dioxide directly out of the air; and bioenergy with carbon capture technology – processing biomass to recapture carbon dioxide absorbed as the fuel grew. In both cases, the captured CO2 is then stored permanently out of the atmosphere, typically under the seabed.
The report sets out how the engineered removal and storage of carbon dioxide offers the most realistic way to mitigate the final slice of emissions expected to remain by the 2040s from sources that don’t currently have a decarbonisation solution, like aviation and agriculture.
It stresses that the potential of these technologies is “not an excuse to delay necessary action elsewhere” and cannot replace efforts to reduce emissions from sectors like road transport or power, where removals would be a more expensive alternative.
The critical role these technologies will play in meeting climate targets means government must rapidly kick start the sector so that it becomes viable by the 2030s, according to the report, which was commissioned by government in November 2020.
Early movement by the UK to develop the expertise and capacity in greenhouse gas removal technologies could create a comparative advantage, with the prospect of other countries needing to procure the knowledge and skills the UK develops.
The Commission recommends that government should support the development of this new sector in the short term with policies that drive delivery of these technologies and create demand through obligations on polluting industries, which will over time enable a competitive market to develop. Robust independent regulation must also be put in place from the start to help build public and investor confidence.
While the burden of these costs could be shared by different parts of industries required to pay for removals or in part shared with government, the report acknowledges that, over the longer term, the aim should be to have polluting sectors pay for removals they need to reach carbon targets.
Polluting industries are likely to pass a proportion of the costs onto consumers. While those with bigger household expenditures will pay more than those on lower incomes, the report underlines that government will need to identify ways of protecting vulnerable consumers and to decide where in relevant industry supply chains the costs should fall.
Chair of the National Infrastructure Commission, Sir John Armitt, said taking steps to clean our air is something we’re going to have to get used to, just as we already manage our wastewater and household refuse.
"While engineered removals will not be everyone’s favourite device in the toolkit, they are there for the hardest jobs. And in the overall project of mitigating our impact on the planet for the sake of generations to come, we need every tool we can find," he said.
“But to get close to having the sector operating where and when we need it to, the government needs to get ahead of the game now. The adaptive approach to market building we recommend will create the best environment for emerging technologies to develop quickly and show their worth, avoiding the need for government to pick winners. We know from the dramatic fall in the cost of renewables that this approach works and we must apply the lessons learned to this novel, but necessary, technology.”
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and International Energy Agency estimate a global capacity for engineered removals of 2,000 to 16,000 megatonnes of carbon dioxide each year by 2050 will be needed in order to meet global reduction targets.
Yesterday Summit Carbon Solutions received "a strategic investment" from John Deere to advance a major CCUS project (click here). The project will accelerate decarbonisation efforts across the agriculture industry by enabling the production of low carbon ethanol, resulting in the production of more sustainable food, feed, and fuel. Summit Carbon Solutions has partnered with 31 biorefineries across the Midwest United States to capture and permanently sequester their CO2 emissions.
Cory Reed, President, Agriculture & Turf Division of John Deere, said: "Carbon neutral ethanol would have a positive impact on the environment and bolster the long-term sustainability of the agriculture industry. The work Summit Carbon Solutions is doing will be critical in delivering on these goals."
McKinsey highlights a number of CCUS methods which can drive CO2 to net zero:
- Today’s leader: Enhanced oil recovery Among CO2 uses by industry, enhanced oil recovery leads the field. It accounts for around 90 percent of all CO2 usage today
- Cementing in CO2 for the ages New processes could lock up CO2 permanently in concrete, “storing” CO2 in buildings, sidewalks, or anywhere else concrete is used
- Carbon neutral fuel for jets Technically, CO2 could be used to create virtually any type of fuel. Through a chemical reaction, CO2 captured from industry can be combined with hydrogen to create synthetic gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel
- Capturing CO2 from ambient air - anywhere Direct air capture (DAC) could push CO2 emissions into negative territory in a big way
- The biomass-energy cycle: CO2 neutral or even negative Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage relies on nature to remove CO2 from the atmosphere for use elsewhere