The renewable energy production of each US state: Part 4
This article is part four of five in a series where we’ll be looking at the renewable energy that is produced by each state in the U.S. We take a look at the percentage of green energy that has been generated by each state and provide some interesting data about the renewable energy that is produced there.
31. New Mexico
The renewable energy sources in New Mexico provide 1.4 percent of New Mexico's energy generation. This totals 33,785 billion BTUs which is 0.45 percent of the total United States renewable energy production.
In 2014, New Mexico’s natural gas production accounted for 4.3 percent of all marketed natural gas produced in the United States.
New Mexico ranked sixth in the nation for its utility-scale electricity production from solar energy in 2014.
32. New York
44.79 percent of the energy that New York produces is renewable. This totals 407,678 billion BTUs which is 5.41 percent of the total U.S. renewable energy production.
New York generated more hydroelectric power than any other state east of the Rocky Mountains in 2015. The Robert Moses Niagara hydroelectric power plant in New York is located about four and a half miles downstream from the Falls and is the biggest electricity producer in the state and can generate 2.4 million kilowatts (which is enough to power 24 million 100-watt bulbs at once). The plant is the forth-biggest hydroelectric power plant in the whole of the U.S.
In order to reduce air pollution, in 2012 the state of New York became the first north-eastern state to necessitate that all heating oil that is used needs to be ultra-low sulfur diesel.
33. North Carolina
Renewable sources provide over 25 percent of North Carolina's total energy production which is 147,988 billion BTUs which is 1.96 percent of the total United States energy production.
The state of North Carolina became the forth-largest solar photovoltaics (PV) producer in 2015.
In 2015, North Carolina’s electricity generation came mostly from its nuclear energy industry. Also in that year, 7.1 percent of the state’s utility-scale net electricity production came from renewable resources such as hydroelectric power and solar energy.
34. North Dakota
Renewable energy sources provide 8.11 percent of North Dakota's energy production this totals 82,476 billion BTUs which equates to 1.09 percent of total U.S. renewable energy production.
In 2014, over 17 percent of North Dakota’s net energy generation came from its wind energy industry and roughly 7 percent of its usage came from hydroelectric sources.
Even though North Dakota has a generally low energy consumption rate (411 trillion BTU in 2006) compared to other states (because of its small population), its consumption per capita is among the highest, partly because of the state’s high-energy industrial sector and high heating need in the winter.
Ohio produces 9.15 percent of its energy through renewable generation. This totals 96,219 billion BTUs which is 1.28 percent of the total United States renewable energy production.
In 2015, coal-fuelled 59 percent of Ohio's net electricity production, natural gas contributed 23 percent and nuclear energy accounted for another 14 percent.
In 2013, Ohio was ranked seventh in the United States for its energy consumption by the industrial industry.
A total of 3 percent of the energy that Oklahoma produces is renewable. This totals 77,187 billion BTUs which is just over one percent of the total United States renewable energy production.
The state of Oklahoma is one of the top natural-gas producing states in the U.S. In 2014, its natural-gas industry produced 7.4 percent of the total U.S. gross production.
Almost 17 percent of the state’s net electricity came from renewable wind energy in 2014.
Renewable sources provide over 99 percent of Oregon's energy generation. This totals 410,345 billion BTUs which is 5.44 percent of the total United States renewable energy production.
73 percent of Oregon's net electricity production came from hydroelectric power plants and other renewable energy resources in 2014.
After Nevada and California, Oregon is ranked third in the U.S. for its geothermal potential.
In the state of Oregon, there are nearly 1,000 charging outlets along with 404 electric vehicle charging stations.
The Mist field in northwest Oregon is the only producing natural gas field in the Pacific Northwest.
Renewable sources generate 4.42 percent of Pennsylvania's energy production. This equates to 118,269 billion BTUs which is 1.57 percent of the total United States renewable energy production.
Pennsylvania's yearly natural gas generation (mainly from the Marcellus Shale) surpassed 4 trillion cubic feet in 2014, which doubled its 2012 production and making the state of Pennsylvania the United States second-largest natural gas producer.
Pennsylvania's Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards necessitate that 18 percent of the electricity that is sold by 2021 must come from approved renewable or alternative sources, including at least 0.5 percent from solar photovoltaic (PV) power. In 2015, renewable energy in the state accounted for 4 percent of electricity generation.
39. Rhode Island
Rhode Island produces all of its energy through renewable means. This is mostly down to the states biomass industry which equates to over 90 percent of Rhode Island’s renewable energy production. All of this totals to more than 2,652 billion BTUs which is 0.04 percent of the total United States renewable energy production.
95 percent of electricity produced in Rhode Island in 2015 came from natural gas.
The first United States offshore wind facility is under construction and is located three miles off Rhode Island's Block Island. The five 6-megawatt turbines are predicted to commence operation in late 2016.
Rhode Island is the second-lowest emitter of carbon dioxide across all sectors among all states.
40. South Carolina
16.04 percent of the energy that South Carolina produces is renewable. This totals 104,177 billion BTUs which is 1.38 percent of the total United States renewable energy production.
Renewable energy resources accounted for over five percent of South Carolina's net electricity production in 2015. Nearly 56 percent of that generation came from traditional hydroelectric power.
Carbon dioxide removal revenues worth £2bn a year by 2030
Carbon dioxide removal revenues could reach £2bn a year by 2030 in the UK with costs per megatonne totalling up to £400 million, according to the National Infrastructure Commission.
Engineered greenhouse gas removals will become "a major new infrastructure sector" in the coming decades - although costs are uncertain given removal technologies are in their infancy - and revenues could match that of the UK’s water sector by 2050. The Commission’s analysis suggests engineered removals technologies need to have capacity to remove five to ten megatonnes of carbon dioxide no later than 2030, and between 40 and 100 megatonnes by 2050.
The Commission states technologies fit into two categories: extracting carbon dioxide directly out of the air; and bioenergy with carbon capture technology – processing biomass to recapture carbon dioxide absorbed as the fuel grew. In both cases, the captured CO2 is then stored permanently out of the atmosphere, typically under the seabed.
The report sets out how the engineered removal and storage of carbon dioxide offers the most realistic way to mitigate the final slice of emissions expected to remain by the 2040s from sources that don’t currently have a decarbonisation solution, like aviation and agriculture.
It stresses that the potential of these technologies is “not an excuse to delay necessary action elsewhere” and cannot replace efforts to reduce emissions from sectors like road transport or power, where removals would be a more expensive alternative.
The critical role these technologies will play in meeting climate targets means government must rapidly kick start the sector so that it becomes viable by the 2030s, according to the report, which was commissioned by government in November 2020.
Early movement by the UK to develop the expertise and capacity in greenhouse gas removal technologies could create a comparative advantage, with the prospect of other countries needing to procure the knowledge and skills the UK develops.
The Commission recommends that government should support the development of this new sector in the short term with policies that drive delivery of these technologies and create demand through obligations on polluting industries, which will over time enable a competitive market to develop. Robust independent regulation must also be put in place from the start to help build public and investor confidence.
While the burden of these costs could be shared by different parts of industries required to pay for removals or in part shared with government, the report acknowledges that, over the longer term, the aim should be to have polluting sectors pay for removals they need to reach carbon targets.
Polluting industries are likely to pass a proportion of the costs onto consumers. While those with bigger household expenditures will pay more than those on lower incomes, the report underlines that government will need to identify ways of protecting vulnerable consumers and to decide where in relevant industry supply chains the costs should fall.
Chair of the National Infrastructure Commission, Sir John Armitt, said taking steps to clean our air is something we’re going to have to get used to, just as we already manage our wastewater and household refuse.
"While engineered removals will not be everyone’s favourite device in the toolkit, they are there for the hardest jobs. And in the overall project of mitigating our impact on the planet for the sake of generations to come, we need every tool we can find," he said.
“But to get close to having the sector operating where and when we need it to, the government needs to get ahead of the game now. The adaptive approach to market building we recommend will create the best environment for emerging technologies to develop quickly and show their worth, avoiding the need for government to pick winners. We know from the dramatic fall in the cost of renewables that this approach works and we must apply the lessons learned to this novel, but necessary, technology.”
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and International Energy Agency estimate a global capacity for engineered removals of 2,000 to 16,000 megatonnes of carbon dioxide each year by 2050 will be needed in order to meet global reduction targets.
Yesterday Summit Carbon Solutions received "a strategic investment" from John Deere to advance a major CCUS project (click here). The project will accelerate decarbonisation efforts across the agriculture industry by enabling the production of low carbon ethanol, resulting in the production of more sustainable food, feed, and fuel. Summit Carbon Solutions has partnered with 31 biorefineries across the Midwest United States to capture and permanently sequester their CO2 emissions.
Cory Reed, President, Agriculture & Turf Division of John Deere, said: "Carbon neutral ethanol would have a positive impact on the environment and bolster the long-term sustainability of the agriculture industry. The work Summit Carbon Solutions is doing will be critical in delivering on these goals."
McKinsey highlights a number of CCUS methods which can drive CO2 to net zero:
- Today’s leader: Enhanced oil recovery Among CO2 uses by industry, enhanced oil recovery leads the field. It accounts for around 90 percent of all CO2 usage today
- Cementing in CO2 for the ages New processes could lock up CO2 permanently in concrete, “storing” CO2 in buildings, sidewalks, or anywhere else concrete is used
- Carbon neutral fuel for jets Technically, CO2 could be used to create virtually any type of fuel. Through a chemical reaction, CO2 captured from industry can be combined with hydrogen to create synthetic gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel
- Capturing CO2 from ambient air - anywhere Direct air capture (DAC) could push CO2 emissions into negative territory in a big way
- The biomass-energy cycle: CO2 neutral or even negative Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage relies on nature to remove CO2 from the atmosphere for use elsewhere