Renewable energy provides 14% of United States' net electrical generation
According to the most recent issue of the "Monthly Energy Review" by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), with data through June 30, renewable energy sources (i.e., biofuels, biomass, hydropower, geothermal, solar, and wind) provided 9.81 percent of U.S. energy consumption and 11.82 percent of domestic energy production for the first half of 2013.
EIA's earlier-issued "Electric Power Monthly" revealed that renewables had provided 14.20 percent of net electrical generation during the first six months of the year.
Compared to the same time frame in 2012, overall renewable energy production, including conventional hydropower, was 2.00 percent higher while production from non-hydro renewables grew by 4.13 percent. Specifically, solar grew by 32.46 percent in 2013, wind by 20.14 percent, geothermal by 0.89 percent, and biomass by 0.42 percent. Hydropower slipped by 2.59 percent and biofuels by 5.92 percent.
Among the renewable energy sources, hydropower's share during the first half of 2013 was 30.18 percent, biomass 25.26 percent, biofuels 20.18 percent, wind 18.80 percent, solar 3.19 percent, and geothermal 2.39 percent.
“Renewable sources, particularly solar, wind, and biofuels, have been the real growth industries in the energy market over the past decade,” said Ken Bossong, executive director of the SUN DAY Campaign. “If recent trends continue, they will eventually eclipse both fossil fuels and nuclear power.”
Production from all renewable energy sources, including conventional hydropower, is about 60 percent higher in 2013 than it was in 2003 while production from non-hydro renewable energy sources has more than doubled.
Over the past decade, domestic energy production from wind has increased by a factor of nearly 16 while output from both biofuels and solar is now about five times higher than in 2003. Geothermal has also grown - by about 30 percent - while biomass and hydropower have remained largely unchanged.
By comparison, during the past ten years, domestic energy production from fossil fuels has increased by about 11 perent and from nuclear power by only 1 percent.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration released its most recent "Monthly Energy Review" on Sept. 25. It can be found at: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/index.cfm.
Trafigura and Yara International explore clean ammonia usage
Reducing shipping emissions is a vital component of the fight against global climate change, yet Greenhouse Gas emissions from the global maritime sector are increasing - and at odds with the IMO's strategy to cut absolute emissions by at least 50% by 2050.
How more than 70,000 ships can decrease their reliance on carbon-based sources is one of transport's most pressing decarbonisation challenges.
Yara and Trafigura intend to collaborate on initiatives that will establish themselves in the clean ammonia value chain. Under the MoU announced today, Trafigura and Yara intend to work together in the following areas:
- The supply of clean ammonia by Yara to Trafigura Group companies
- Exploration of joint R&D initiatives for clean ammonia application as a marine fuel
- Development of new clean ammonia assets including marine fuel infrastructure and market opportunities
Magnus Krogh Ankarstrand, President of Yara Clean Ammonia, said the agreement is a good example of cross-industry collaboration to develop and promote zero-emission fuel in the form of clean ammonia for the shipping industry. "Building clean ammonia value chains is critical to facilitate the transition to zero emission fuels by enabling the hydrogen economy – not least within trade and distribution where both Yara and Trafigura have leading capabilities. Demand and supply of clean ammonia need to be developed in tandem," he said.
There is a growing consensus that hydrogen-based fuels will ultimately be the shipping fuels of the future, but clear and comprehensive regulation is essential, according to Jose Maria Larocca, Executive Director and Co-Head of Oil Trading for Trafigura.
Ammonia has a number of properties that require "further investigation," according to Wartsila. "It ignites and burns poorly compared to other fuels and is toxic and corrosive, making safe handling and storage important. Burning ammonia could also lead to higher NOx emissions unless controlled either by aftertreatment or by optimising the combustion process," it notes.
Trafigura has co-sponsored the R&D of MAN Energy Solutions’ ammonia-fuelled engine for maritime vessels, has performed in-depth studies of transport fuels with reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and has published a white paper on the need for a global carbon levy for shipping fuels to be introduced by International Maritime Organization.
Oslo-based Yara produces roughly 8.5 million tonnes of ammonia annually and employs a fleet of 11 ammonia carriers, including 5 fully owned ships, and owns 18 marine ammonia terminals with 580 kt of storage capacity – enabling it to produce and deliver ammonia across the globe.
It recently established a new clean ammonia unit to capture growth opportunities in emission-free fuel for shipping and power, carbon-free fertilizer and ammonia for industrial applications.