The Waste-to-Energy Market to be Worth $7.6M in 2014
The Waste-to-Energy market has grown considerably since incineration first started in 1874. Large markets were established in Europe as well as parts of Asia. However, concerns over harmful by-products of the incineration process, both pollution and public health-related, led to widespread regulatory tightening of dioxin, particulate and refuse fuel emissions, forcing some plants out of business and increasing public opposition to some plant developments.
Despite this, there are renewed growth prospects for the WtE industry. Not only is the world population growing, it is also becoming increasingly urbanized. This leads to greater levels of waste being generated globally, in more concentrated levels and in closer proximity to large urban areas. These issues are focusing more attention on waste management frameworks, with increased interest in alternatives to landfill. As a result, municipalities worldwide are considering the functionality of WtE plants to help deal with mounting waste being generated.
With its ability to effectively manage municipal solid waste (MSW) in relatively small land space, as well as provide energy in the form of electricity and heat, the interest in WtE is growing as an option for sustainable waste management practices.
Although some areas, namely Europe and parts of North America and Asia, have an established WtE market, there are real prospects for growth in regions such as the UK, Asia-Pacific and Eastern Europe. With a combination of mounting environmental concerns, increased governmental policy, more stringent renewable targets and a desire for increased domestic energy production, WtE is set to offer a viable solution.
In its, Waste-to-Energy report, Visiongain covers the CAPEX spending of new and upgraded WtE plants globally and anticipates that spending in the WtE market will total $7.6 million in 2014.
Trafigura and Yara International explore clean ammonia usage
Reducing shipping emissions is a vital component of the fight against global climate change, yet Greenhouse Gas emissions from the global maritime sector are increasing - and at odds with the IMO's strategy to cut absolute emissions by at least 50% by 2050.
How more than 70,000 ships can decrease their reliance on carbon-based sources is one of transport's most pressing decarbonisation challenges.
Yara and Trafigura intend to collaborate on initiatives that will establish themselves in the clean ammonia value chain. Under the MoU announced today, Trafigura and Yara intend to work together in the following areas:
- The supply of clean ammonia by Yara to Trafigura Group companies
- Exploration of joint R&D initiatives for clean ammonia application as a marine fuel
- Development of new clean ammonia assets including marine fuel infrastructure and market opportunities
Magnus Krogh Ankarstrand, President of Yara Clean Ammonia, said the agreement is a good example of cross-industry collaboration to develop and promote zero-emission fuel in the form of clean ammonia for the shipping industry. "Building clean ammonia value chains is critical to facilitate the transition to zero emission fuels by enabling the hydrogen economy – not least within trade and distribution where both Yara and Trafigura have leading capabilities. Demand and supply of clean ammonia need to be developed in tandem," he said.
There is a growing consensus that hydrogen-based fuels will ultimately be the shipping fuels of the future, but clear and comprehensive regulation is essential, according to Jose Maria Larocca, Executive Director and Co-Head of Oil Trading for Trafigura.
Ammonia has a number of properties that require "further investigation," according to Wartsila. "It ignites and burns poorly compared to other fuels and is toxic and corrosive, making safe handling and storage important. Burning ammonia could also lead to higher NOx emissions unless controlled either by aftertreatment or by optimising the combustion process," it notes.
Trafigura has co-sponsored the R&D of MAN Energy Solutions’ ammonia-fuelled engine for maritime vessels, has performed in-depth studies of transport fuels with reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and has published a white paper on the need for a global carbon levy for shipping fuels to be introduced by International Maritime Organization.
Oslo-based Yara produces roughly 8.5 million tonnes of ammonia annually and employs a fleet of 11 ammonia carriers, including 5 fully owned ships, and owns 18 marine ammonia terminals with 580 kt of storage capacity – enabling it to produce and deliver ammonia across the globe.
It recently established a new clean ammonia unit to capture growth opportunities in emission-free fuel for shipping and power, carbon-free fertilizer and ammonia for industrial applications.