Winter is Coming! 5 Ways the Changing Seasons Impact Renewable Energy Systems
In many parts of the northern hemisphere, the leaves are falling, temperatures are dropping, and winter is just around the corner. Many people pay attention to the turning of the seasons because it means they need a new coat -- but for those who utilize solar and wind energy, it’s even more important to understand how this change affects PV and wind energy systems.
1. Renewable energy is site specific
Unlike coal or natural gas power plants, which basically function the same way no matter the location, both solar and wind systems are inherently dependent on their location and the time of year. Renewable energy system designers plan for these changes, utilizing weather data, insolation maps, anemometers, and modeling software to ensure the system is reliable and efficient all year round. Often this means designing a system based on the historically least sunny and windy day of the year.
For example, near the equator, insolation is almost constant year-round, whereas polar regions have very little sun during the winter months. Because this is so site specific, renewable energy systems are most productive and cost effective when they are customized to their unique environment.
2. Solar panels are more efficient in cold temperatures -- but winter days are shorter
Panels capture energy from photovoltaic light -- not from the sun’s heat. In fact, heat actually reduces the efficiency of solar panels, but during colder months, their energy production can increase by up to 15%. Despite this benefit of cold weather, winter days have fewer daylight hours, so the net change of amount of energy produced will be lower than during other times of the year.
3. Winter in most regions brings stronger winds
One way to make up for this loss of solar panel efficiency is to incorporate wind, creating a hybrid renewable energy system. Winters in most regions tend to bring stronger winds, which help offset the loss of production seen from PV. This same balanced system design can also be applied to differences between day and night, where solar panels produce energy from light during the day and wind turbines take advantage of nighttime winds.
4. Battery chemistry varies with temperature
Batteries often have reduced efficiency at extreme temperatures. In order to account for this loss, renewable energy system designers must assess the energy needs and the site resources. In some extreme climates, it may be advised that electronics and batteries are housed in a temperature controlled enclosure.
5. Snow falling on solar panels: Preparing for winter storms
Snow and ice can cause added load on solar panels, so this possibility should be factored into structural design as well as energy production estimates for the winter season.
The good news? While winter weather often brings increased power outages, renewable energy systems designed for off-grid use can provide uninterrupted electricity, even when power lines go down. Microgrids, as well as backup storage, are becoming increasingly popular for the added resiliency and energy security they provide.
Conor Trujillo is a senior system design engineer at UGE, a leading developer of distributed renewable energy solutions for business and government, with projects in over 90 countries, including several for Fortune 1,000 companies.
Carbon dioxide removal revenues worth £2bn a year by 2030
Carbon dioxide removal revenues could reach £2bn a year by 2030 in the UK with costs per megatonne totalling up to £400 million, according to the National Infrastructure Commission.
Engineered greenhouse gas removals will become "a major new infrastructure sector" in the coming decades - although costs are uncertain given removal technologies are in their infancy - and revenues could match that of the UK’s water sector by 2050. The Commission’s analysis suggests engineered removals technologies need to have capacity to remove five to ten megatonnes of carbon dioxide no later than 2030, and between 40 and 100 megatonnes by 2050.
The Commission states technologies fit into two categories: extracting carbon dioxide directly out of the air; and bioenergy with carbon capture technology – processing biomass to recapture carbon dioxide absorbed as the fuel grew. In both cases, the captured CO2 is then stored permanently out of the atmosphere, typically under the seabed.
The report sets out how the engineered removal and storage of carbon dioxide offers the most realistic way to mitigate the final slice of emissions expected to remain by the 2040s from sources that don’t currently have a decarbonisation solution, like aviation and agriculture.
It stresses that the potential of these technologies is “not an excuse to delay necessary action elsewhere” and cannot replace efforts to reduce emissions from sectors like road transport or power, where removals would be a more expensive alternative.
The critical role these technologies will play in meeting climate targets means government must rapidly kick start the sector so that it becomes viable by the 2030s, according to the report, which was commissioned by government in November 2020.
Early movement by the UK to develop the expertise and capacity in greenhouse gas removal technologies could create a comparative advantage, with the prospect of other countries needing to procure the knowledge and skills the UK develops.
The Commission recommends that government should support the development of this new sector in the short term with policies that drive delivery of these technologies and create demand through obligations on polluting industries, which will over time enable a competitive market to develop. Robust independent regulation must also be put in place from the start to help build public and investor confidence.
While the burden of these costs could be shared by different parts of industries required to pay for removals or in part shared with government, the report acknowledges that, over the longer term, the aim should be to have polluting sectors pay for removals they need to reach carbon targets.
Polluting industries are likely to pass a proportion of the costs onto consumers. While those with bigger household expenditures will pay more than those on lower incomes, the report underlines that government will need to identify ways of protecting vulnerable consumers and to decide where in relevant industry supply chains the costs should fall.
Chair of the National Infrastructure Commission, Sir John Armitt, said taking steps to clean our air is something we’re going to have to get used to, just as we already manage our wastewater and household refuse.
"While engineered removals will not be everyone’s favourite device in the toolkit, they are there for the hardest jobs. And in the overall project of mitigating our impact on the planet for the sake of generations to come, we need every tool we can find," he said.
“But to get close to having the sector operating where and when we need it to, the government needs to get ahead of the game now. The adaptive approach to market building we recommend will create the best environment for emerging technologies to develop quickly and show their worth, avoiding the need for government to pick winners. We know from the dramatic fall in the cost of renewables that this approach works and we must apply the lessons learned to this novel, but necessary, technology.”
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and International Energy Agency estimate a global capacity for engineered removals of 2,000 to 16,000 megatonnes of carbon dioxide each year by 2050 will be needed in order to meet global reduction targets.
Yesterday Summit Carbon Solutions received "a strategic investment" from John Deere to advance a major CCUS project (click here). The project will accelerate decarbonisation efforts across the agriculture industry by enabling the production of low carbon ethanol, resulting in the production of more sustainable food, feed, and fuel. Summit Carbon Solutions has partnered with 31 biorefineries across the Midwest United States to capture and permanently sequester their CO2 emissions.
Cory Reed, President, Agriculture & Turf Division of John Deere, said: "Carbon neutral ethanol would have a positive impact on the environment and bolster the long-term sustainability of the agriculture industry. The work Summit Carbon Solutions is doing will be critical in delivering on these goals."
McKinsey highlights a number of CCUS methods which can drive CO2 to net zero:
- Today’s leader: Enhanced oil recovery Among CO2 uses by industry, enhanced oil recovery leads the field. It accounts for around 90 percent of all CO2 usage today
- Cementing in CO2 for the ages New processes could lock up CO2 permanently in concrete, “storing” CO2 in buildings, sidewalks, or anywhere else concrete is used
- Carbon neutral fuel for jets Technically, CO2 could be used to create virtually any type of fuel. Through a chemical reaction, CO2 captured from industry can be combined with hydrogen to create synthetic gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel
- Capturing CO2 from ambient air - anywhere Direct air capture (DAC) could push CO2 emissions into negative territory in a big way
- The biomass-energy cycle: CO2 neutral or even negative Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage relies on nature to remove CO2 from the atmosphere for use elsewhere