Top 10 onshore wind farms
The USA and China dominate the onshore wind market in terms of the world's biggest farms, with India and Europe also represented in the top 10 list.
10. Fântânele-Cogealac Wind Farm, Fântânele & Cogealac, Romania
Capacity – 600MW
Contributing around 10 percent of Romania’s renewables output, Fantanele-Cogealac Wind Farm is one of the largest wind projects in Europe and cost $1.5 billion to put together. There are 240 turbines using the latest turbine technology from GE, with parts coming in from Germany, Brazil and Spain. The European Investment Bank provided a €200m loan for the construction and development of the wind project.
9. Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm, Texas, USA
Capacity – 662.5MW
Located in Sterling and Coke counties of Texas, Capricorn Ridge is a 662.5MW windfarm comprising more than 340 GE wind turbines and 65 Siemens turbines. The farm generates enough electricity for more than 200,000 homes and effectively takes 186,000 cars off the road when evaluating equivalent fossil fuel output.
8. Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center, Texas, USA
Capacity – 735.5MW
Split into three parts, Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center is a flagship example for the USA’s wind energy sector. Housed in Texas, the leading US state for wind power, the site can be found in Taylor and Nolan counties. It was built and is owned and operated by a subsidiary of NextEra Energy Resources, with 421 turbines capable of generating enough electricity to power more than 220,600 homes.
7. Fowler Ridge Wind Farm, Indiana, USA
Capacity – 750MW
In terms of sheer size, Fowler Ridge is one of the largest wind farms in the world, spanning some 50,000 acres and supplying enough power for 200,000 homes. The plant is owned and operated jointly by BP Alternative Energy North America and Dominion Resources, each with a 50 percent stake.
6. Roscoe Wind Farm, Texas, USA
Capacity – 781.5MW
Once the world’s largest onshore windfarm, Roscoe is another fine example of Texas leading the way in this sector. The Roscoe Wind Farm comprises more than 620 turbines spread across 100,000 acres, capable of producing enough electricity to power 265,000 homes. Operational since 2009, the project cost around $1 billion to complete.
5. Shepherds Flat Wind Farm, Oregon, USA
Capacity – 845MW
Shepherds Flat opened in 2012 and is a $2 billion project backed by Google. Contirbuting a sizeable chunk of Oregon’s renewable energy, it is predicted that the site generates $37 million in annual impact from the electricity it produces. The three wind farms deploy 338 wind turbines across 32,100 acres to generate 845 megawatts of clean energy – enough to power 227,000 homes.
4. Jaisalmer Wind Park, Rajasthan, India
Capacity – 1,064MW
India is one of the leading providers of onshore wind, with Jaisalmer Wind Park one of the country’s most important sites, generating more than 1,000MW of power. It comprises of a cluster of wind farm sites within Jaisalmer including Amarsagar Badabaug, Tejuva and Soda Moda among others. The wind park houses projects of various companies including Mytrah Energy, Hindustan Zinc Limited, Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited, Rajasthan State Mines & Mineral Limited, Rajasthan Renewable Energy Corporation Limited and Rajasthan Gums Limited.
3. Muppandal Wind Farm, Tamil Nadu, India
Capacity – 1,500MW
Muppandal is a small village on the southern tip of India in Kanyakumari District, in the state of Tamil Nadu. Though a small village, it is home to a series of massive sites containing turbines which produce 1,500MW of electricity for the region. The Indian government plans to massively expand its wind power programme to include village communities, where a large proportion of the country’s 1.25 billion people still live.
2. Alta Wind Energy Center, California, USA
Capacity – 1,548MW
The Alta Wind Energy Center is USA's largest wind facility and second largest onshore site in the world. It is located in the wind resource area at the Tehachapi Pass in Kern County and windfarm supplies 1,548 megawatts (MW) of renewable energy to Southern California Edison (SCE) customers. It will continue through to 2040 under a 3,000 MW wind power development initiative, producing enough electricity to power 450,000 homes.
1. Gansu Wind Farm, Gansu, China
Capacity – 6,000MW
In 2012, Gansu’s capacity surpassed the total wind-generated-electricity produced by all of the United Kingdom, and it’s just the largest of six mega-wind farms currently under construction throughout China. The project will produce a massive 20,000MW of power by 2020 and will cost nearly $20 billion to build. Turbines are going up at an astronomical rate of 35 per day across the three areas that make up the power base. Developers on the project include Huaneng and Datang.
Top 10 ways to prepare for COVID-19
Energy Digital sets out Gartner’s Top 10 ways organisations can prepare for a pandemic, via effective operational risk management.
As the spread of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) continues to develop, many businesses are left uncertain as to whether their risk mitigation plan is sufficient.
In a recent webinar conducted by the research and advisory firm just 12% of 1,500 people believe that their business is highly prepared for the impact of COVID-19, while 56% believed themselves to be somewhat prepared, and 11% believed themselves to be very unprepared.
“Most organizations have done some pandemic planning but still have many unanswered questions about whether they have done everything they can to manage risks,” says Jim Mello, Senior Director, Advisory, Gartner.
Establish a preparedness framework
Establish a team that represents all critical business functions. These people will report directly to executive management and are responsible for prioritising the importance of business activities and organise them in tiers for response and recovery.
Monitor the situation
It is important to ensure that organisations monitor the rate in which the infection is spreading and its severity. Many rely on the World Health Organisation for information.
Be sure to revise revenue forecasts and communicate with investors, as well as suppliers in regards to any potential finance issues. It is important to ensure that the business has the working capital to ride it out.
Ways to ensure this include: working capital checks, seeking loans or government-sponsored financial relief.
Extend personal hygiene and cleaning protocols
It is important to comply with any changes to workplace regulations. In addition, it is important to establish protocols for staff returning from infected areas, as well as extending existing hygiene activities.
Ensure close monitoring of absenteeism rates for signs of problems. It is important to identify critical staff in order to make sure the company can continue to function in their absence and be prepared for up to 40% absentee rates.
In addition to reviewing HR policies and procedures, it is important to maintain a level of sensitivity when it comes to engaging with employees and workplace preferences.
Establish a communication programme
People can feel out of the loop quickly. Establish a spokesperson appropriate for the situation who can maintain lines of communication. In addition, organisations should establish pre-approved messages and scripts for various stakeholders.
Review the impact on the operation
Although this may seem overwhelming, the team established to represent all critical business functions should identify key areas to consider. It is important to maintain a connection with the reality on the ground in countries affected.
Key questions to consider: is transport functioning? Have holidays been extended? Where can operation continue and where do they need to stop?
IT business functions tend to be relatively well-prepared for business continuity. However, it is important to assess the supply chain for critical equipment and keep extra inventory if required.
In addition, organisations should keep in mind remote data centre management and cloud options for critical systems as well as enabling remote working programs and rescheduling any non-essential IT work prioritising key applications.
Review pandemic plans to identify any gaps in response
Conduct a preparedness exercise by validating roles and responsibilities as well as recovery requirements and procedures, in order to identify any gaps in the recover capabilities and resource needs.
Following the establishment of a pandemic plan, identify three lessons learned, key observations or improvements for the exercise. After establishing these organisations should priorities the short and long term follow up actions.