Carbon Sciences' Natural Gas to Gasoline
The United States has some of the highest recoverable natural gas reserves in the world thanks to the controversial hydraulic fracturing process that breaks shale rock formations to release the energy source. However, existing vehicle infrastructure relies on liquid fuel to run the millions of cars and trucks on U.S. roadways. While there are natural gas vehicles being manufactured, they are slow to catch on and distributed fueling infrastructure is lacking. To resolve this dilemma, Carbon Sciences Inc. has developed a breakthrough technology that transforms natural gas and carbon dioxide into gasoline, which may help reduce foreign oil dependence.
"The world is running out of cheap, easy oil," says Carbon Sciences CEO Byron Elton. "The current system of providing transportation fuels is flawed and unsustainable. Natural gas is abundant, affordable, cleaner and with our technology can provide all the gasoline and other transportation fuels we need without buying a teaspoon of foreign oil."
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Carbon Sciences’ technology combines natural gas and carbon dioxide into a synthetic gas (syngas) that can be transformed into gasoline using the Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquids process, also known as “dry reforming.” The company has solved the problem that has faced natural gas to gasoline ventures in the past, namely the inability to achieve the desired dry reforming.
Elton adds, "We believe that the U.S. can only achieve energy security by using our own resources. Combining the country's abundant supply of natural gas with our breakthrough technology to produce low cost syngas to make vast quantities of transportation fuels using mature FT technology is the answer. This is a game changer."
The company’s process has proven a high-conversion efficiency for more than 2,000 hours of laboratory testing and more than 1,000 hours of commercial testing. The company claims that its reaction catalyst is the most robust dry reforming process for methane to date. An added benefit to the process is the use of carbon dioxide in the conversion process, which may serve as a way to recycle the climate-changing compound rather than releasing it into the atmosphere (at least until it's burned in an engine).
Itronics successfully tests manganese recovery process
Itronics - a Nevada-based emerging cleantech materials growth company that manufacturers fertilisers and produces silver - has successfully tested two proprietary processes that recover manganese, with one process recovering manganese, potassium and zinc from paste produced by processing non-rechargeable alkaline batteries. The second recovers manganese via the company’s Rock Kleen Technology.
Manganese, one of the four most important industrial metals and widely used by the steel industry, has been designated by the US Federal Government as a "critical mineral." It is a major component of non-rechargeable alkaline batteries, one of the largest battery categories sold globally.
The use of manganese in EV batteries is increasing as EV battery technology is shifting to use of more nickel and manganese in battery formulations. But according to the US Department of Interior, there is no mine production of manganese in the United States. As such, Itronics is using its Rock Kleen Technology to test metal recoverability from mine tailings obtained from a former silver mine in western Nevada that has a high manganese content.
In a statement, Itronics says that its Rock Kleen process recovers silver, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and nickel. The company says that it has calculated – based on laboratory test results – that if a Rock Kleen tailings process is put into commercial production, the former mine site would become the only primary manganese producer in the United States.
Itronics adds that it has also tested non-rechargeable alkaline battery paste recovered by a large domestic battery recycling company to determine if it could use one of its hydrometallurgical processes to solubilize the manganese, potassium, and zinc contained in the paste. This testing was successful, and Itronics was able to produce material useable in two of its fertilisers, it says.
"We believe that the chemistry of the two recovery processes would lend itself to electrochemical recovery of the manganese, zinc, and other metals. At this time electrochemical recovery has been tested for zinc and copper,” says Dr John Whitney, Itronics president.
“Itronics has been reviewing procedures for electrochemical recovery of manganese and plans to move this technology forward when it is appropriate to do so and has acquired electro-winning equipment needed to do that.
"Because of the two described proprietary technologies, Itronics is positioned to become a domestic manganese producer on a large scale to satisfy domestic demand. The actual manganese products have not yet been defined, except for use in the Company's GOLD'n GRO Multi-Nutrient Fertilisers. However, the Company believes that it will be able to produce chemical manganese products as well as electrochemical products," he adds.
Itronics’ research and development plant is located in Reno, about 40 miles west of the Tesla giga-factory. Its planned cleantech materials campus, which will be located approximately 40 miles south of the Tesla factory, would be the location where the manganese products would be produced.
Panasonic is operating one of the world's largest EV battery factories at the Tesla location. However, Tesla and other companies have announced that EV battery technology is shifting to use of nickel-manganese batteries. Itronics is positioned and located to become a Nevada-0based supplier of manganese products for battery manufacturing as its manganese recovery technologies are advanced, the company states.
A long-term objective for Itronics is to become a leading producer of high purity metals, including the U.S. critical metals manganese and tin, using the Company's breakthrough hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, and electrochemical technologies. ‘Additionally, Itronics is strategically positioned with its portfolio of "Zero Waste Energy Saving Technologies" to help solve the recently declared emergency need for domestic production of Critical Minerals from materials located at mine sites,’ the statement continues.
The Company's growth forecast centers upon its 10-year business plan designed to integrate its Zero Waste Energy Saving Technologies and to grow annual sales from $2 million in 2019, to $113 million in 2025.