How smart cities can power a sustainability revolution
What is a smart city?
A smart city is a framework designed to harness the capabilities of innovative technology to connect, protect, and enhance the lives of a city’s residents.
By harnessing information and communication technologies (ICT) and the internet of things (IoT), a smart city collects and analyses data from multiple channels to ‘sense’ the city’s environment, providing real-time information to help governments, enterprises, and citizens make better and more informed decisions to improve the overall quality of their lives. The eleven for a smart city framework are: air quality, communication architecture, environment, lighting, parking, public wifi, safety and security, transportation, urban mobility, waste management and water management.
Developing a smart city framework
Outlined in Eden Strategy Institute’s most recent ‘’ report, the organisation researched the key factors that are considered by leading cities when developing a smart city framework.
“Developing a smart city vision involves multiple stages: defining the relevant smart city concepts; designing the planning process; engaging and drafting approaches with stakeholders; as well as prioritizing initiatives and crafting the roadmap.”
Within its report the Eden Strategy Institute LLP details for an effective smart city strategy. These include: taking stock of a city’s natural strengths and assets, to build the foundations for a smart city vision; engaging with citizens when it comes to determining the smart goals and areas of development; encouraging private sector involvement; identifying focus areas; establishing a specific criteria for the city in order to prioritise the multiple opportunities available; and ensuring that each initiative is planned, sequenced and validated.
When it comes to developing a smart city, “budgetary limitations often constrain the pace at which cities can realise their smart city visions. The top 50 cities have turned to innovative ways to secure funding, including competitions and hackathons, partnerships with private companies, smart procurement policies, or national and state-level funds. In many cases, these acted in concert to improve funding outcomes,” highlighted the Eden Strategy Institute.
Of the top 50 cities within the report, 37% have access to national and state level funds to develop their smart city frameworks; while 23% rely upon private-sector participation; 18% use hackathons and competitions to identify worthwhile smart city project investments; and 9% utilise smart procurement policies and practices, to optimize the use of public funds.
“Done correctly, smart cities have the potential to transform the character and liveability of a city, rejuvenate its economy and heritage, enhance its resilience and sustainability, and even tighten the social compact with the government and among citizens,” stated the Eden Strategy Institute.
Digital inclusion, building a smart workforce and open data
“A city only becomes truly ‘smart’ when all citizens are ready for it. Urban planners and innovators might develop personas of the ideal ‘smart citizen’ as they prepare future plans for their cities. These often assume that citizens enjoy internet access, and are tech-savvy enough to use and interact with the city’s spaces and services. Reality, however, presents a wider range of city users, and cities risk excluding entire segments of their population from the smart city experience if efforts are not made to bridge the digital gap,” emphasised the Eden Strategy Institute.
As a result it is important when developing a smart city framework that every group within the city is accounted for to ensure that the readiness of individuals to adopt technology within the city isn’t overestimated. A part of ensuring that the city is ready for such innovations, it is equally important to provide accessibility to both the internet and the devices to utilities online capabilities, as well as having the technological skills to utilise the capabilities of a smart city.
Building a smart workforce is another aspect of ensuring that smart city initiatives are adopted. A holistic strategy ensures that all ages have access to technology, education and the opportunities to add value and have a part to play in developing the city.
As industries face increased demands for transparency and accountability particularly when it comes to the environment, open data has emerged as a cost efficient way to improve transparency, accountability, efficiency and responsiveness. However, to best utilise this technology, it is important to not only have the technological skills for effective use, but also to establish open data policies.
Co-creation and shared knowledge via districts and conferences
“We have observed a ready willingness for many of the top-ranked cities in our study to accept that they may not have all the answers,” commented the Eden Strategy Institute. In order to really drive innovation and ensure that the city is striving to connect, protect, and enhance the lives of a city’s citizens, cities should look to involving outside stakeholders - businesses, startups, students and the public - to develop a larger variety, volume, and quality
of insights, ideas, and feedback to establish the most cost-effectively and functional smart city.
Currently, “cities around the world are increasingly experimenting with geographically-concentrated innovation ecosystems.” This approach develops an ecosystem of shared knowledge and well connected capabilities to drive innovation that is tailored to local needs. Smart district models have been successfully developed in two ways: top-down strategies which are decided and led by the government or local authorities, or bottom-up ones which are initiated and driven by the private sector. The result - an innovative culture at the heart of the city.
When it comes to shared knowledge via conferences and expos, 86% of the top ranked cities in the Eden Strategy Institute’s report are hosting these types of events as well as other shared knowledge mechanisms such as joint ventures, collaborative planning, and developing specialised knowledge and industry clusters.
When establishing a smart city framework it is important to have a clear leadership model. Some of the most successful cities it has seen have used a single dedicated office for their initiative with flexible pathways for leadership to evolve naturally. However other successful smart cities have also used models that distributed responsibilities across departments as well as forming partnerships with the public and private sector.
How smart cities can drive sustainability goals and energy efficiencies
Having the capability to advance Sustainable Development Goals by , smart cities can deliver a cleaner and more sustainable environment. With increased urbanisation, industrialisation and consumption comes the addition of increased environmental challenges. While technology is only one element that can help to address these challenges, overall analysis by highlights that “deploying a range of applications to the best reasonable extent could cut emissions by 10 to 15%, lower water consumption by 20 to 30%, and reduce the volume of solid waste per capita by 10 to 20%.”
Greenhouse gas emissions
For cities that find structures as a major source of emissions, reports t hat building automation systems can lower emissions by just under 3% in most commercial buildings and 3% in residential homes. Other technologies that can significantly impact emissions are dynamic electric pricing, ride-hailing and demand based microtransit, intelligence traffic signals and congestion pricing.
While some of the above can improve air quality, to directly address this challenge requires implementing air quality sensors. While this does not automatically solve pollution, the technology can identify the source, providing the ability to make more informed decisions. reported that Beijing reduced its deadly airborne pollutants by 20% in under a year by closely tracking the source of pollution and regulating traffic and construction.
In addition, sharing real time air quality information provides the public with the capability to take protective measures to reduce negative health effects by three to 15% depending on the current levels of pollution.
Harnessing water consumption tracking technology paired with advanced metering and digital feedback messages can reduce consumption by 15% in higher income cities where residential water is high. However, McKinsey notes that its effectiveness depends on whether it is paired with a pricing strategy.
In developing countries, the biggest source of water waste is leaking pipes. Utilising sensors and analytics can help to cut the loss by up to 25%.
Solid waste reduction
With low-tech recycling reaching its limits, McKinsey reports that technology could help to further reduce the volume of un-recycled solid waste. An example of this could be to harness digital tracking and payments, however this should be considered alongside other policy initiatives particularly for developing economies with tight household budgets.
Itronics successfully tests manganese recovery process
Itronics - a Nevada-based emerging cleantech materials growth company that manufacturers fertilisers and produces silver - has successfully tested two proprietary processes that recover manganese, with one process recovering manganese, potassium and zinc from paste produced by processing non-rechargeable alkaline batteries. The second recovers manganese via the company’s Rock Kleen Technology.
Manganese, one of the four most important industrial metals and widely used by the steel industry, has been designated by the US Federal Government as a "critical mineral." It is a major component of non-rechargeable alkaline batteries, one of the largest battery categories sold globally.
The use of manganese in EV batteries is increasing as EV battery technology is shifting to use of more nickel and manganese in battery formulations. But according to the US Department of Interior, there is no mine production of manganese in the United States. As such, Itronics is using its Rock Kleen Technology to test metal recoverability from mine tailings obtained from a former silver mine in western Nevada that has a high manganese content.
In a statement, Itronics says that its Rock Kleen process recovers silver, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and nickel. The company says that it has calculated – based on laboratory test results – that if a Rock Kleen tailings process is put into commercial production, the former mine site would become the only primary manganese producer in the United States.
Itronics adds that it has also tested non-rechargeable alkaline battery paste recovered by a large domestic battery recycling company to determine if it could use one of its hydrometallurgical processes to solubilize the manganese, potassium, and zinc contained in the paste. This testing was successful, and Itronics was able to produce material useable in two of its fertilisers, it says.
"We believe that the chemistry of the two recovery processes would lend itself to electrochemical recovery of the manganese, zinc, and other metals. At this time electrochemical recovery has been tested for zinc and copper,” says Dr John Whitney, Itronics president.
“Itronics has been reviewing procedures for electrochemical recovery of manganese and plans to move this technology forward when it is appropriate to do so and has acquired electro-winning equipment needed to do that.
"Because of the two described proprietary technologies, Itronics is positioned to become a domestic manganese producer on a large scale to satisfy domestic demand. The actual manganese products have not yet been defined, except for use in the Company's GOLD'n GRO Multi-Nutrient Fertilisers. However, the Company believes that it will be able to produce chemical manganese products as well as electrochemical products," he adds.
Itronics’ research and development plant is located in Reno, about 40 miles west of the Tesla giga-factory. Its planned cleantech materials campus, which will be located approximately 40 miles south of the Tesla factory, would be the location where the manganese products would be produced.
Panasonic is operating one of the world's largest EV battery factories at the Tesla location. However, Tesla and other companies have announced that EV battery technology is shifting to use of nickel-manganese batteries. Itronics is positioned and located to become a Nevada-0based supplier of manganese products for battery manufacturing as its manganese recovery technologies are advanced, the company states.
A long-term objective for Itronics is to become a leading producer of high purity metals, including the U.S. critical metals manganese and tin, using the Company's breakthrough hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, and electrochemical technologies. ‘Additionally, Itronics is strategically positioned with its portfolio of "Zero Waste Energy Saving Technologies" to help solve the recently declared emergency need for domestic production of Critical Minerals from materials located at mine sites,’ the statement continues.
The Company's growth forecast centers upon its 10-year business plan designed to integrate its Zero Waste Energy Saving Technologies and to grow annual sales from $2 million in 2019, to $113 million in 2025.