African nations should diversify energy supplies
Countries in Africa have been warned about the repercussions of hydropower reliance, Reuters states.
The continent has recently suffered from droughts, which has affected both food security and energy supply.
Industry experts highlighted the dangers of hydropower dependence at The World Energy Council’s INDABA Energy Leader’s Dialogue, held in Johannesburg on 20 February.
With low levels of water, due to dry and hot weather conditions, hydropower is not accessible at all times.
Zambia’s Executive Director of the Energy Regulation Board, Langiwe Lungu, talked of the issue climate change has had on the nation’s energy supply.
In 2016, the country’s electricity deficit hit 1,000MW at Kariba Dam, one of Zambia’s main generators, was highly impacted by drought.
The weather has not only affected the nation’s energy, but it’s mining – with Glencore’s Zambian Copper Mines having to partly suspend operations.
Since, the company has diversified its energy mix, also using solar, coal, and heavy fuel oil.
“At one point our energy supply was 99 percent from hydropower but now we are at about 85 percent,” Lungu noted.
In Kenya, citizens are currently having to spend significantly more on energy and the government has little access to hydropower.
“We have been forced to use diesel power plant in Muhoroni to supplement the power shortage being experienced in the western region,” the nation’s Energy Cabinet Secretary, Charles Keter, reported during a hydropower station tour.
Trafigura and Yara International explore clean ammonia usage
Reducing shipping emissions is a vital component of the fight against global climate change, yet Greenhouse Gas emissions from the global maritime sector are increasing - and at odds with the IMO's strategy to cut absolute emissions by at least 50% by 2050.
How more than 70,000 ships can decrease their reliance on carbon-based sources is one of transport's most pressing decarbonisation challenges.
Yara and Trafigura intend to collaborate on initiatives that will establish themselves in the clean ammonia value chain. Under the MoU announced today, Trafigura and Yara intend to work together in the following areas:
- The supply of clean ammonia by Yara to Trafigura Group companies
- Exploration of joint R&D initiatives for clean ammonia application as a marine fuel
- Development of new clean ammonia assets including marine fuel infrastructure and market opportunities
Magnus Krogh Ankarstrand, President of Yara Clean Ammonia, said the agreement is a good example of cross-industry collaboration to develop and promote zero-emission fuel in the form of clean ammonia for the shipping industry. "Building clean ammonia value chains is critical to facilitate the transition to zero emission fuels by enabling the hydrogen economy – not least within trade and distribution where both Yara and Trafigura have leading capabilities. Demand and supply of clean ammonia need to be developed in tandem," he said.
There is a growing consensus that hydrogen-based fuels will ultimately be the shipping fuels of the future, but clear and comprehensive regulation is essential, according to Jose Maria Larocca, Executive Director and Co-Head of Oil Trading for Trafigura.
Ammonia has a number of properties that require "further investigation," according to Wartsila. "It ignites and burns poorly compared to other fuels and is toxic and corrosive, making safe handling and storage important. Burning ammonia could also lead to higher NOx emissions unless controlled either by aftertreatment or by optimising the combustion process," it notes.
Trafigura has co-sponsored the R&D of MAN Energy Solutions’ ammonia-fuelled engine for maritime vessels, has performed in-depth studies of transport fuels with reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and has published a white paper on the need for a global carbon levy for shipping fuels to be introduced by International Maritime Organization.
Oslo-based Yara produces roughly 8.5 million tonnes of ammonia annually and employs a fleet of 11 ammonia carriers, including 5 fully owned ships, and owns 18 marine ammonia terminals with 580 kt of storage capacity – enabling it to produce and deliver ammonia across the globe.
It recently established a new clean ammonia unit to capture growth opportunities in emission-free fuel for shipping and power, carbon-free fertilizer and ammonia for industrial applications.