May 17, 2020

Car Runs on Natural Gas and Biomass

energy digital
Natural Gas
alternative fuel
5 min
Primus Green Energy’s new $7 million plant
Hillsborough, N.J. (June 26, 2012) – The test drive of an automobile fueled with 93-octane gasoline made from natural gas and biomass was the h...



Hillsborough, N.J. (June 26, 2012) – The test drive of an automobile fueled with 93-octane gasoline made from natural gas and biomass was the highlight of a dedication ceremony for Primus Green Energy’s new $7 million demonstration plant at the company’s Hillsborough, N.J., complex on June 22.

The event was attended by a distinguished roster of more than a dozen federal, state and local dignitaries, including the keynote speakers, former N.J. Gov. James J. Florio and N.J. Department of Environmental Protection Assistant Commissioner for Sustainability and Green Energy Robert A. Marshall, who took part in the ceremonial fueling of the car with Primus’ high quality, 93-octane alternative gasoline.

The Second Generation of Biofuels

Primus Green Energy is a leader in the alternative fuel industry whose goal is to produce affordable replacements for transportation fuels made from petroleum, thus enhancing energy security by reducing dependence on foreign oil. Primus is considered to be the only company that is making a drop-in replacement for gasoline, as opposed to alternative fuels that require costly engine modifications or fuel delivery infrastructure overhauls.

The speakers’ remarks centered on Primus’ landmark achievement, which marks a milestone in the transition from a fuel economy based on petroleum to one based on domestically produced alternative fuels. This theme was sounded by Gov. Florio when he reminded the audience in his keynote address that they will some day be able to look back and “take pride at being here at the beginning.”

“No country can out-innovate the United States -- not Europe, not China, not India -- and no state can out-innovate New Jersey,” added Leonard Lance, U.S. Congressman from New Jersey’s 7th Congressional District, who included Primus Green Energy on a list of Garden State innovators such as Thomas A. Edison and Bell Labs, where modern technologies such as the laser, the cell phone and the fax machine were developed.

Read more in June's issue of Energy Digital: Energy Turns to SPACE

The event, which was attended by more than 100 guests, took place at the site of Primus Green Energy’s new demonstration plant, now under construction, which is slated for completion in late 2012. The demonstration plant, which is designed to produce 33 liters of gasoline per hour, will serve as the proving ground for the company’s first commercial plant, on which the company expects to break ground next year.

The new demonstration plant will showcase the flexibility of Primus Green Energy technology in terms of both feedstock and end product. Although the plant will initially use natural gas as a feedstock, it will later be adapted to use biomass in the form of wood pellets or energy crops. The end products will include a high quality gasoline that is virtually identical to gasoline produced from petroleum, and jet fuel.

“The construction of our new demonstration plant is a tremendous achievement that showcases our ability to scale our technology,” said Robert J. Johnsen, Primus’ chief executive officer. “We have gone from the concept stage to the demonstration stage in only five years and now, with the demo plant, we can further refine our technology with the goal of commercializing our technology next year.”

The event also featured tours of Primus’ existing pilot plant, where the company is now making small amounts of gasoline from natural gas and biomass, including the gasoline used to fuel the car for the test drive.

Primus Green Energy has been funded since its inception by a single investor, IC Green Energy, which is the alternative energy investment arm of Israel Corp., Israel’s largest publicly traded corporation. The commitment of IC Green Energy, which was lauded by the speakers in their remarks, has allowed the company to progress steadily from concept to the brink of commercialization.

IC Green Energy’s president and CEO, Dr. Yom-Tov Samia reminded government officials of the importance of committing funds for research and development to an industry that is vital to the energy security of the United States and Israel.

Dr. Samia’s remarks were echoed by N.J. Assemblyman Upendra J. Chivukula of Legislative District 17, who is known as New Jersey’s “Mr. Energy” for his sponsorship of innovative legislation that has made New Jersey a national leader in solar energy. “American innovation doesn’t come cheap -- it has to be backed by investment,” he noted. “If we are going to look to the future, we have to invest in these technologies.”

Other speakers included Howard Henderson, state director for rural development for the U.S. Department of Agriculture; Joseph L. Fiordaliso, commissioner of the N.J. Board of Public Utilities; N.J. Sen. Christopher “Kip” Bateman of Legislative District 16; and Joanna Underwood, president of Energy Vision, a non-profit organization focused on the challenge of sustainable transportation.


About Primus Green Energy Inc.

Headquartered in Hillsborough, N.J., Primus Green Energy has innovated a flexible alternative drop-in fuel technology that produces high-octane gasoline that can be used directly in engines as a component in standard fuel formulas without costly engine modifications or changes to the fuel delivery infrastructure. The Primus Green Energy technology is a proprietary version of proven commercial technologies to convert natural gas and/or biomass to a variety of liquid transportation fuels such as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel or specialty chemicals such as xylene and toluene. Primus Green Energy's technology has recorded the highest cellulose-to-gasoline conversion efficiency rate in the industry; is feedstock flexible through the use of natural gas as a supplement or replacement for biomass; and has low capital and operating costs. Primus Green Energy is funded by IC Green Energy, the alternative energy arm of publicly traded Israel Corp. For more information, visit




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Oct 19, 2020

Itronics successfully tests manganese recovery process

Scott Birch
3 min
Nevada firm aims to become the primary manganese producer in the United States
Nevada firm aims to become the primary manganese producer in the United States...

Itronics - a Nevada-based emerging cleantech materials growth company that manufacturers fertilisers and produces silver - has successfully tested two proprietary processes that recover manganese, with one process recovering manganese, potassium and zinc from paste produced by processing non-rechargeable alkaline batteries. The second recovers manganese via the company’s Rock Kleen Technology.

Manganese, one of the four most important industrial metals and widely used by the steel industry, has been designated by the US Federal Government as a "critical mineral." It is a major component of non-rechargeable alkaline batteries, one of the largest battery categories sold globally.

The use of manganese in EV batteries is increasing as EV battery technology is shifting to use of more nickel and manganese in battery formulations. But according to the US Department of Interior, there is no mine production of manganese in the United States. As such, Itronics is using its Rock Kleen Technology to test metal recoverability from mine tailings obtained from a former silver mine in western Nevada that has a high manganese content. 

In a statement, Itronics says that its Rock Kleen process recovers silver, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and nickel. The company says that it has calculated – based on laboratory test results – that if a Rock Kleen tailings process is put into commercial production, the former mine site would become the only primary manganese producer in the United States.

Itronics adds that it has also tested non-rechargeable alkaline battery paste recovered by a large domestic battery recycling company to determine if it could use one of its hydrometallurgical processes to solubilize the manganese, potassium, and zinc contained in the paste. This testing was successful, and Itronics was able to produce material useable in two of its fertilisers, it says.

"We believe that the chemistry of the two recovery processes would lend itself to electrochemical recovery of the manganese, zinc, and other metals. At this time electrochemical recovery has been tested for zinc and copper,” says Dr John Whitney, Itronics president. 

“Itronics has been reviewing procedures for electrochemical recovery of manganese and plans to move this technology forward when it is appropriate to do so and has acquired electro-winning equipment needed to do that.

"Because of the two described proprietary technologies, Itronics is positioned to become a domestic manganese producer on a large scale to satisfy domestic demand. The actual manganese products have not yet been defined, except for use in the Company's GOLD'n GRO Multi-Nutrient Fertilisers. However, the Company believes that it will be able to produce chemical manganese products as well as electrochemical products," he adds.

Itronics’ research and development plant is located in Reno, about 40 miles west of the Tesla giga-factory. Its planned cleantech materials campus, which will be located approximately 40 miles south of the Tesla factory, would be the location where the manganese products would be produced.

Panasonic is operating one of the world's largest EV battery factories at the Tesla location. However, Tesla and other companies have announced that EV battery technology is shifting to use of nickel-manganese batteries. Itronics is positioned and located to become a Nevada-0based supplier of manganese products for battery manufacturing as its manganese recovery technologies are advanced, the company states.

A long-term objective for Itronics is to become a leading producer of high purity metals, including the U.S. critical metals manganese and tin, using the Company's breakthrough hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, and electrochemical technologies. ‘Additionally, Itronics is strategically positioned with its portfolio of "Zero Waste Energy Saving Technologies" to help solve the recently declared emergency need for domestic production of Critical Minerals from materials located at mine sites,’ the statement continues.

The Company's growth forecast centers upon its 10-year business plan designed to integrate its Zero Waste Energy Saving Technologies and to grow annual sales from $2 million in 2019, to $113 million in 2025.

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